Palmer studied under the direction of master painter Robert Venosa on Cadaques Island off the coast of Spain in 2003. Cadaques Island is the location of the summer home of famed surrealist Salvador Dali. Venosa was a student of Dali. Dali —> Venosa —> Palmer. It was on the island just a ferry’s trip away from Barcelona, where Palmer temporarily moved away from the vibrant colors so prevalent in his early paintings. Here he experimented with movement and form by only using black-and-white. To this date, Palmer pieces that only use black-and-white are deemed “Barcelona” as a throwback and honor to this trip and his revered artist lineage. The Barcelona style was prominently featured in Palmer’s third self-published book, Seven Years (2005), in a chapter entitled Black, White & Barcelona.